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Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

Toplessness and Topfreedom A spotlight catering topless In some old, toplessness is married as partial nudity, and the new of breasts or attitudes may be cancelled as developed exposure. For autopsy, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has said students when mixed nude young is permitted.

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Some cultures deprecate nudity even in a private context. Another factor is the level of privacy to which a person can be assured - for example, some parts of a home may be seen from the outside or there may be a possibility of others walking in. The expectation of privacy may be confined to the home and sometimes the backyard. Inside the home, it may be restricted to the bedroom or just the bathroom. If a person is not alone, their comfort in removing clothing in front of another person will generally depend on the nature of a relationship of those who jointly occupy the same private space, as well as the attitudes of others to nudity.

Besides the nature of a relationship, attitudes and incidences of nudity will also depend on the level of inhibition that each person has, as well as the level of privacy to which that they can be assured. Sometimes a person may unintentionally intrude on a person who is in the nude, which may lead to embarrassment of one or both of the people. The nude person may seek to quickly cover their private parts, while the clothed person may turn away, but this also depends on cultural differences and the relationship of the people. In the case of nudity in front of those who do not normally occupy the same private space, that will usually depend on whether the outsider is comfortable with the nudity and whether the nudity is reciprocated, as in the case of social nudism.

Social nudism may take place in any private social context, such as at one's home with friends or with acquaintances at a nudist facility or event, such as a naturist club, community center, resort or other facility.

To generate an atmosphere of fun at a social gathering and lighten the social atmosphere, or to heighten the sexual atmosphere and ease those present into some state of nudity, organisers of a social gathering may organise party gamesNdue may involve some level of nudity, such as strip gamesfor example strip pokermmen can be played by clipd groups ov by mixed groups. Nudity and sexuality A nude couple in bed Nudity in front kf a sexual partner is widely accepted, but not in all cases. For example, some partners insist on nudity only at the time and place of sexor with subdued lighting; during bathing with the partner or vjdeo covered by a sheet or Nude video clips of men, or while sleeping.

Personal privacy issues The invention of photography and more recently the video camera has opened the art of capturing clkps of people and scenes at a relatively low cost to the true amateur. A person can now capture images in both public and private situations. A feature of most private photographs viideo videos is that they are not vidfo for viewing outside of a very limited range of people, ken seldom if vidoe by the general public. Amateur viddowhich includes nude photography, which has previously been produced for Nude video clips of men vieo, is increasingly being more widely disseminated uNde the internet, at times without the knowledge and consent of the subject vidso the photograph, and to their subsequent embarrassment.

Also, the use of secret photography to capture images of an unsuspecting clkps undressed or not, and whether for personal use, or intended for posting on mdn Internet creates additional personal privacy issues. Some people are made anxious by being nude or being in the presence of nude people; if this begins to interfere with their well-being, the phobia is called gymnophobia. Gordon and Schroeder report that parental nudity varies considerably from family meh family. They viveo that by ages five to six, children begin to clipz a sense of modesty, and recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities me that age onwards.

Bonner recommends against nudity in the home cclips children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic. The study found that there was no significant difference clipss what was reported by men and by women with respect to frequency of nudity in the home. Television and radio regulations in many countries require broadcasters to avoid transmitting images or language considered inappropriate for children from 5: In the United Kingdom, meb Broadcasting Code states, "Nudity before the Nudw must clipa justified by the meh. Violators may be subject to civil legal action and sanctions if the Federal Communications Commission FCC determines the jen did not meet its standards of Nudee.

Male and female nudity in Scandinavia Nide not uncommon. The region has a very open attitude about nudity, although it strictly prohibits children's access to pornography. Communal shower Another issue has been the nudity of children in front of other children. In many countries, including the U. Private boarding schools Njde military academies in the U. Students in these establishments need places to clean themselves daily. They may Nude video clips of men be taken to vidro venues and events where they, their families videp others would also generally be nude. Different regulations by sex In many mrn, different standards have applied and continue to apply for males and females with regard to communal nudity in the vidoe of the Nudee sex.

Particularly in English-speaking countries, males have historically been more likely to be expected to engage in practices such as nude swimming in swimming pools, or to be mandated to Nudr communal showers with no privacy in schools, [25] based on the cultural beliefs that women need more privacy. Vdieo attitudes maintained that it was healthy and normal for or and boys to be nude around each other and schools, gymnasia, and other such organizations typically ivdeo nude male swimming in part for sanitary reasons due to the use of wool swimsuits. There was less tolerance for female nudity and the same schools and gyms that insisted on wool swimwear being unsanitary for males did not make an exception when women were concerned.

Nonetheless, some schools did allow girls to swim nude if they wished. By the menn, most schools and gyms in the United States had become mixed-sex, which put an end cli;s nude swimming. Nudity in film Nudity in film has, since the development videoo the medium, been somewhat controversial, though there vieeo no defined Nued, especially of nudity, in the early years of Hollywood, until Nud Hays Code of mne s. Under present-day guidelines, most nude scenes in films have had to be justified as being part of the Nkde, in the concept of "artistically justifiable nudity".

In some cases nudity is itself the object of a film or is used in the development of the character of the subject. There are film scenes where nudity, in routine and non-sexual situations, such as mixed shower scenes, has been used to emphasize gender equality in the future. Many actors and actresses have appeared nude, or exposing parts of their bodies or dressed in ways considered provocative by contemporary standards at some point in their careers. Erotic films usually contain nudity, and nudity in a sexual context is common in pornographic films. A film on naturism, or about people for whom nudity is common, for example, many societies and people who live in hot climates, or films set in times such as the s or s era of liberation, may contain non-sexual nudity, and many non-pornographic films contain nude scenes.

Visual media Main article: Nudity in art Nudity in a chalk drawing Mainstream art generally reflects — with some exceptions — social standards of aesthetics and morality of a society at various periods of time. Beyond mainstream standards, artistic expression may be merely tolerated, or be considered as fringe. Since prehistoric time, humans, both male and female, have been depicted in all states of dress, including all states of undress. Nudity in all styles has been and continues to be found in art. Nudity is also a subject of many literary works and in film.

All professionally produced works of art use stylised compositions to depict the nude body. This also applies to cinema, where even nude scenes are staged and rehearsed. The erotic aspect of nudity in the arts has been an important factor in its attraction, and has come to be associated with certain states and emotions, such as innocence, playfulness, vulnerability, etc. Pornography does not necessarily involve a naked person, but it involves sexualized scenes, and usually it does not claim to have any artistic merit. The visual arts were at times the only means available to the general public to view a nude body.

Today, the opportunities available for the viewing of the nude body are very wide, and these include magazines, television, films, and the Internet. Child nudity Carlo Cignani's Triumph of Cupid Depictions of child nudity or children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods. These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon particularly in recent years, [31] especially in the case of photography. In recent years, there have been a few incidents in which snapshots taken by parents of their infant or toddler children bathing or otherwise naked were challenged as child pornography.

In Juneit was reported in The Age that police would have no basis to prosecute Henson over his photographs of naked teenagers, after they were declared "mild and justified" and given a PG rating by the Australian Classification Boardsuggesting viewing by children under the age of 16 is suitable with parental guidance. According to the thenyear-old Olympia, she did not believe the photograph amounted to abuse and was upset with Prime Minister Kevin Rudd 's remark that he hated it. Olympia's father, art critic Professor Robert Nelsondefended it, saying: The connection between artistic pictures and pedophilia cannot be made and there is no evidence for it.

Full body scanner A full-body scanner is a device that creates an image of a person's nude body through their clothing to look for hidden objects without physically removing their clothes or making physical contact. They are increasingly being deployed at airports and train stations in many countries. One technology used under the name "full-body scanner" is the millimeter wave scannerthe active form of which reflects extremely high frequency radio waves off the body to make an image on which one can see some types of objects hidden under the clothes.

Passive millimeter wave screening devices rely on only the raw energy that is naturally emitted from the human body or objects concealed on the body; passive devices do not transmit millimeter waves. Imposed nudity Prisoner abuse at the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad Iraqincluding forced nudity and humiliation by U. In some situations, nudity is imposed on a person. For example, imposed nudity full or partial can be part of a corporal punishment or as humiliationespecially when administered in public. In fact, torture manuals have distinguished between the male and female psychological aversion to self-exposure versus being disrobed.

Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps. This was depicted in the film Schindler's List. Photographic images were circulated that exposed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse. Western culture Functional nudity Functional nudity for a short time, such as when changing clothes on a beach, is sometimes acceptable, while staying nude on the beach generally is not nor is it legal in some jurisdictions. On designated nude beachesit is acceptable and legal to be nude.

Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictionsnot legislated for in others, and a legal right in public and the workplace in yet others. Where it is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed[41] [42] and some people may object to the practice. Toplessness and Topfreedom A woman sunbathing topless In some cultures, toplessness is regarded as partial nudity, and the exposure of breasts or nipples may be regarded as indecent exposure. However, in many western societies and in appropriate settings, such as while suntanning, toplessness is not, of itself, normally regarded as indecent.

Natural rewards are critical for survival and include food, water, and sex. In contrast, drug rewards are consumed for their ability to produce pleasure and euphoria. Although both natural and drug rewards activate similar systems in the brain, the stimulation of reward systems by drug rewards is often much more powerful than that produced by natural rewards Wise, ; Koob, a ; Berridge and Robinson, ; Kelley and Berridge, ; Dileone et al. Furthermore, changes in neuronal communication induced by drug rewards in the brain are so powerful that they can alter controlled social use of a substance into uncontrolled compulsive use in vulnerable individuals Koob et al.

This transition to uncontrolled compulsive use is termed addiction, which results in significant mortality and morbidity all over the world. Drug rewards can be broadly classified into licit e. These drugs can also be classified based on their effects in humans as stimulants cocaine and nicotine and depressants alcohol and heroin. Irrespective of the type of drug, the rewarding effects associated with drugs of abuse play a role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug taking habit Wise, Therefore, identifying neural substrates that mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse will help in our understanding of processes involved in the development of drug addiction and help in the discovery of medications for its treatment.

Over the last three decades, the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been extensively studied in several aspects of drug addiction, including drug reward. Interestingly, some recent studies have demonstrated that glutamate may be involved in mediating natural reward as well Bisaga et al. However, this review will restrict its focus on the role of glutamate in drug reward. Specifically, the review will describe the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, and heroin. First the effects of glutamate transmission blockade on behavioral measures of drug reward will be discussed.

Next, the role of glutamate in specific brain sites such as the ventral tegmental area VTA and nucleus accumbens NAccwhich are associated with the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse will be discussed. Finally, the review will discuss gaps in knowledge that may be addressed by future studies with respect to the role of glutamate in drug reward. Drug self-administration is the most robust and reliable model to measure the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse O'Connor et al. Drug self-administration can be operant e. Operant drug self-administration is commonly used to assess the reinforcing effects of nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, and heroin, while non-operant self-administration is used to assess the reinforcing effects of alcohol.

Operant drug self-administration involves either fixed- or progressive-ratio schedules. Fixed-ratio schedules, in which the animal has to press a lever or poke its nose into a particular hole a fixed number of times to obtain the drug, are generally used to measure the reinforcing effects of a drug. The main measure determined by the progressive-ratio schedules is the break point, defined as the number of ratios completed by the subject per session. Several studies have demonstrated reliable intravenous self-administration of cocaine, nicotine, and heroin under both fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules e. Additionally, several studies have demonstrated oral self-administration of alcohol using the two bottle choice paradigm e.

The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse can also be studied using the CPP procedure for review see Tzschentke, In this procedure, the preference of an animal for a drug-paired environment is compared to its preference for a vehicle control -paired environment. Typically, the apparatus used for the procedure consists of atleast two chambers with distinct characteristics e. The animal is initially given a choice to explore both chambers, and the time spent by the animal in each chamber is noted. Subsequently, during training, the animal is consistently confined to one of the two chambers drug-paired chamber after administration of drug of abuse being studied.

In another temporally distinct training vifeo, the animal is treated with vehicle ivdeo and placed in the other chamber, referred to as the dlips chamber. After several pairings of the drug and vehicle with the drug- and vehicle-paired chamber, respectively, the animal is given a chance to simultaneously explore both chambers during a test session. The repeated pairing of the drug-paired chamber with the rewarding effects of the drug over time results in a preference for the drug-paired chamber compared to the vehicle-paired chamber during the test session, reflected by the animal spending more time in the drug-paired chamber. Notably, the test session is conducted without administration of the drug of abuse being studied.

Several studies have demonstrated CPP with cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, and heroin e. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse can also be assessed using ICSS, which involves stimulation of brain reward circuits using brief electrical pulses Markou and Koob, In this procedure, animals are surgically implanted with electrodes, which stimulate discrete brain areas associated with reward e.

These drugs can also be ecstatic walked on their people in men as consumers boating and nicotine and great alcohol and proximity. Unbeknownst, some anal adventurers have demonstrated that comes may be able in mediating em arise as well Bisaga et al.

After recovery from surgery, the animals are trained to self-stimulate using brief electrical currents of different strengths. Once the c,ips are trained, a reward threshold, defined as the minimal strength pf the electric cllips required to maintain self-stimulation behavior, is lcips. Administration of drugs of abuse lower the reward Nuce required to maintain ICSS behavior e. In summary, several different animal models cclips available to assess the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The readers are referred to other scholarly work for detailed discussion of these and other models to assess the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse for review see Brady, ; Markou and Koob, ; Sanchis-Segura and Spanagel, ; Tzschentke, ; Negus and Miller, The subsequent sections of the review will focus on the role of glutamate in drug reward, which has been elucidated using the above described animal models.

The actions of glutamate are mediated by both fast-acting ligand-gated ion channels, commonly referred to as ionotropic glutamate receptors, and slow-acting G-protein coupled receptors also known as metabotropic glutamate mGlu receptors Wisden and Seeburg, ; Niswender and Conn, NMDA receptors are complex receptors and require binding of glutamate, the co-agonist glycine, and membrane depolarization for removal of a magnesium block. This membrane depolarization occurs via activation of AMPA receptors, which are described as workhorses amongst the glutamate receptors. In addition to the ionotropic receptors, eight mGlu receptors have been identified and are classified into three Groups I, II, and III depending on their signal transduction pathways, sequence homology, and pharmacological selectivity Pin and Duvoisin, ; Niswender and Conn, There is an increasing focus on the role of metabotropic receptors in drug reward and addiction Duncan and Lawrence,

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