Weak areas for adult learning

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Improved adolescent and adult literacy programs require the development of measures and comprehensive systems of assessment that 1 include measures of language and literacy skills related to a range of literacy forms and tasks, domain knowledge, cognitive abilities, and valued functional as well as psychological outcomes; 2 include measures for differentiated placement and instruction, diagnosis, formative assessment, and accountability that are all aligned to work toward common learning goals; and 3 produce information at learner, classroom, and program levels that is useful to learners, instructors, program administrators, and policy makers.

Three types of assessment are needed: The different forms of measurement serve different purposes.

Diagnostic assessment gives detailed information to instructors about which skill components the learner possesses and ateas need to be developed. Formative assessment provides the information needed to improve instruction by focusing attention on skills that need to be improved as instruction fof. Accountability assessment provides funders and the public with a sense of how well the Weqk and systems that serve adult literacy learners are working. Instructors also need arreas in how to use diagnostic assessments to guide instructional choices and formative assessments to improve instruction.

The validity of measures for both practice and research needs attention with respect to 1 the suitability of the measures for adults, 2 comprehensive coverage of the multiple dimensions of component skills especially Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Options for Practice and Research. The National Academies Press. The use of grade level equivalents to measure skill levels and gains needs to be rethought because adults begin instruction with widely varied skills that do not fit neatly into grade level categories. In both research and practice, better measurement tools are especially needed to more adequately assess all aspects of reading comprehension.

The measures that are available and that have been used in the few intervention studies focus on a narrow range of skill e. To evaluate effective instructional practices, measures used in research must have sufficient breadth and complexity to measure the important dimensions of literacy and language. Use of only a single composite score on a standardized assessment, by contrast, or measurement of a narrow skill set should be avoided to maximize understanding and return on investment, especially in large-scale effectiveness research. There is a need to conceptualize and develop multidimensional measures in tandem with the development and testing of integrated reading comprehension models and comprehensive approaches to instruction.

In doing this work, attention is needed to construct validity. Across studies, the same measures have been used to assess different constructs, and different measures